Is finish intended to include the same information that would be included in the “mouthfeel” section of a standard BJCP score sheet?
aaaa! I forgot my mouthfeel! Good catch sir!
To further expand on terms I want to use to simplify my reviews, the following are the most common terms that people would understand:
- Straw, Gold, Amber, Copper, Red, Brown, Black
- Clear, Opaque, Hazy, Clody
- No head, Dimishing head, Lasting head, Fizzy head, Creamy head
Aroma & Taste:
- Toast, Biscuit, Caramel, Toffee, Chocolate, Coffee, Roasty, Woody, Nutty, Smokey
- Floral, Herbal, Grassy, Hay, Piney, Earthy, Citrusy, Peppery
- Cloves, Spices, Berries, Sweet fruit, Dark fruit, Barnyard, Cardammon, Cillantro
- Creamy, Syrupy, Mouth-coating, Smooth, Silky, Velvety
- Light body, Medium body, Full body, No carbonation
- Dry, Wet, Boozy/Alcohol warmth, Wine-like, Spritzy/Champagne, Puckering, Astringent
- Quick finish, Long finish, Lingering finish
- Balance -> Malty/sweet, Hoppy/bitter, Sour, Fruity, Complex
Been looking at past beer reviews and noticed some inconsistencies in the way I review beers. So I will standardize and simplify my review methods going forward.
Since last thing a want to do is alienate my followers (or any reader for that matter) I will keep my reviews sweet, short and entertaining yet I will use key words used to describe beer (i.e. as little BS as possible).
Often I find huge 1-page beer reviews that I am forced to skim over and that could be cut down to a few lines. Words hurts my head.
My template will be as follows:
Intro: (History and back-ground info for my review with some nice pictures to accompany the post)
Beer review: (name of beer)
Beer Style: (very important - based on BJCP guidelines)
Serving type: (bottle for the most part)
Overall Rating: / 10 (very important - rating is based on the particular style - a particular beer may be great BUT sometimes it may not fit the style it is marketed for - so I will qualify based on style guidelines)
Overall: (my closing remarks)
German Ingenuity at its Best!
I will take this opportunity to provide my humble review of Weihenstephaner Hefeweissbier. Somehow one of the first beers that opened me up to the world of beer was missing a review! Unacceptable!
Nowadays there are so many exciting beers choices out there that we forget about the traditionally well-made beers that captured our palate with a single sip. Having a newly found appreciation for beer, this is a welcomed addition to my beer fridge, specially now that summer is around the corner.
Beer review: Weihenstephaner Hefeweissbier
Beer Style: Hefeweizen (wheat beer)
Brewery: Bayerische Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan
Serving type: Bottle
Overall Rating: 9 / 10
Appearance: cloudy light golden with significant carbonation. Beautiful eggshell white fluffly head.
Aroma: bananas mixed with an ever-so-pleasant bready profile. Very delicate and enjoyable to the nose. Some grassy / floral aromas like lemon grass and lavender.
Taste: mellow banana transforming into its bready profile.
Mouthfeel: significant carbonation that explodes in your mouth, light and refreshing and keeps you coming for more.
Finish: No significant bitterness from hops, yet the floral quality remains. The beer finishes into its bready profile with a very refreshing finish.
Overall: German brewers have definitely mastered this style! Unlike its American counterparts whose focus has been on hops, the Germans have achieved a wonderful balance between the floral hops and the sweet malt. Highly recommended in this style category!
The HopAmigo Emerges!
Just thought I would share my latest pet project: the HopAmigo logo! Still a work in process but very much alive! Eventually want to build my own site and make it proper.
Do you guys have any ideas?
***Update: forgot to give props to the homies who are helping me with the design (ooops!). Cheers to Donovan and LifewithLouis ***
Pairing Beer and Dessert - It Just Works!
What?! You have never tried a beer and dessert pairing?! This post is to convince you to try at least one of my recommended pairings of beer with dessert. Because it just works!
How exactly would you describe a beer pairing? Well there are 3 aspect you should focus on to help you describe a beer pairing:
CONTRAST - opposite food profiles are enhanced by the pairing and expose other less apparent profiles. Contrast is as simple as ‘opposites attract’. A good example is pairing a IPA with cheesecake in which the bitterness of the IPA meets the sweetness of the cheesecake and makes the fruit profile of the cheesecake more evident. Refer to the pictures of this post (Mad Tom IPA and Strawberry cheesecake)
COMPLIMENT - In this case both food and beer share a similar flavour profile. Pretty much matching of the flavour of the beer with the flavour profile of the food (and vice versa). A good example is dark chocolate cake with a coffee stout where the roastiness of the coffee meets the bark-like quality of the dark chocolate. Another great example is a witbier and a salad in which the light citrus notes of the beer compliments the grassy profile and even the salads peppery dressing.
CUT - cleansing of the palate thanks to carbonation or ‘hopiness’ in beer. This is definitely one of the key attributes of beer. A good example is pairing a fatty or creamy cheese with a Belgian Tripel which just cuts through the fatty salty cheese. Another great example, a spicy (hot) dish like a curry with an IPA in which the carbonation will cleanse your palate of the dreaded capsaicin (stuff that makes food spicy) and even compliments the dish herbs with the hops. Try doing that with water or wine!
I present to you my top ten dessert and beer pairings (in no particular order). In some of these I have specified only the beer style for the pairing (as opposed to specific beer brand) because there are so many great choices out there:
1) IPA and Strawberry Cheesecake (or any cheesecake for that matter)
2) Barrel-aged beer and Vanilla Ice Cream (or any ice cream for that matter)
3) Aventinus (Schneider-Weisse) and Chocolate Cake
4) Belgian Stout and Apple Pie (yup, that’s right, I said “Belgian Stout”. A little hard to find, but well worth-it)
5) Brown Ale and Pecan Pie
6) Coffee Porter and Brownies (no special brownies!)
7) Wheat beer and Orange Squares
8) Lindemans Cassis in an Ice Cream Float
9) Milk (sweet) Stout and a Double Chocolate Cake
10) La Fin Du Monde (Unibroue) and Ginger Cookies
Your mission: get out there and try these. Report back. Take pictures.
Some thoughts on beer festivals, ABV, and the A-word.
An interesting take on a rather unfortunate elephant in the craft beer room.
This is applicable to anyone who likes good beer. Craft brewers, home brewers, or just beer geeks in general. Some of whom may not be truly honest with themselves.
You can’t deny that behind the “I drink craft beer because I enjoy the taste” mantra, there are people with alcohol issues.[…].
On a somewhat related note, what’s bothering me as well is the mantra of doing “special” for its sake. It’s like modern art all the way… I’ll always prefer a good beer instead of a special beer, and all the work I notice in brewing all kind of novel.recipes mostly fails my understanding. Beer with vaginal yeasts, maybe beard crabs or with roadkill? Nah, I don’t even care to hear about such a thing. And it’s not even because it’d be gross, but many things just don’t belong in a “beer” or in a drink for that matter. Call me ultraconservative for not doing bungee jumping either, probably I’m just not the right target for brave drinking adventures.
Spot on article!
The concept of beer education is finally starting to take a foothold in the minds of mainstream beer drinkers and is no longer a concept owned by the snobbery that used to surround the beer industry. This article makes an excellent point: “When one knows something of the history of a thing, something about its power, influence, and potential, one is (hopefully) less inclined to simply see that thing as a mere medium for intoxicant.”
Education is key for a sustainable growth and historically beer has been a social lubricant making it a very approachable topic.
I would love to see a future where education becomes synonym to increased moderation and quality in the beer industry!
Diacetyl (2, 3 butanedione)
Butter, rancid butter, butterscotch, milky / creamy
During primary fermentation due to yeast or bacteria metabolic processes. Often, the higher the fermentation temperature, the less likely the beer will be affected by yeast producing diacetyl from primary fermentation.
Possible causes and Prevention:
- Cause: Highly flocculant yeast strains do not allow time for diacetyl to absorb.
Prevention: Innoculate with a pure yeast strain
- Cause: mutant yeast strain (most likely when yeast has been harvested and re-pitched so many times, the little critters start to mutate and produce off-flavours)
Prevention: Innoculate with a pure yeast strain
- Cause: By-product of bacteria (bacterial contamination)
Prevention: A good sanitation regime.
- Cause: Worts with high adjunct ratios of sugar, unmalted grains, grits, starches etc… tend to produce higher diacetyl
Prevention: Use an adequate yeast strain that will absorb sufficient diacetyl depeding on your brew
- Cause: Early fermentation cooling and reduced contact of beer with rapidly sedimenting yeast (results in higher diacetyl levels)
Prevention: Increase fermentation temperature to adequate levels. Pitch sufficient quantity of yeast to allow for a robust primary fermentation.
- Cause: Premature racking//fining/lagering
Prevention: Allow fermentation to fully complete and avoid over-oxygenating after fermentation.
- Cause: Long periods of wort cooling
Prevention: Rapidly cool wort to yeast pitching temperature before oxidation or contamination can occur (as a side note, rapid cooling will also produce a cold-break which can reduce chill-haze. Hazy beer tends to become stale sooner than non-hazy beer)
- Cause: Too long an acid rest in the mash (main reason is using hard water full of minerals that causes the mash pH to be higher than the normal range of 5 to 5.5 pH)
Prevention: Soften the water or use dark roasted malts to balance alkaline water and achieve the proper mash pH.
- Perform a diacetyl rest. At the end of primary fermentation raise temperature of the beer to 12-15°C (about 55-60°F) for 24 - 48 hours before cooling it down for the lagering period. This makes the yeast more active and allows them to eat up the diacetyl before downshifting into lagering mode (source)
- Krausen beer upon transfer to storage. Adding a small quantity of actively fermenting wort for the lagering period (source)
- Pass beer through DE filter with live yeast cells (more advanced method)
- Add commercial diacetyl reductase enzyme (more advanced methods)
Diacetyl is commonly present in many ales in various concentrations. It is acceptable in beer styles such as scotch ales, bitters, dry stouts, czhec pils and oktoberfest although it may not immediately be perceived.
This off-flavour will contribute to perception of ‘freshness’ in a beer so it is in the best interest of the brewer to remove as much as possible. In severe cases, Diacetyl will produce a slick or oily mouthfeel. The buttery aroma is enough to put-off consumers from a brand forever.
Craft Beer in Colombia - The Journey Begins! (Part 1/2)
Colombia’s geographical location may not have enticed the development of beer in its earlier years, so its beer history can be attributed mainly to German immigrants dating back as early as the 1820’s. Further research into curious market reveals a rich history of Colombo-German brewers that continue to have a deep impact in the beer industry in this country. It is my intention to include a comprehensive account of breweries in Colombia at a later date to give you a better idea of the rich history of beer in this country, so this post will work on giving you an overall understanding of the beer industry in this country.
A visit to Colombia in South America would be the least expected destination for a definite craft beer lover and the last thing anyone would imagine as a budding craft beer market ready to explode. Yet, Colombia has not been immune to the craft beer revolution that has captured the imagination of young entrepreneurs and enthusiasts around the world.
Before the arrival beer drinking immigrants, other forms of fermented beverages were available in Colombia, such as “chicha”, a beverage brewed out of fermented corn, although it was not uncommon to see potatoes, pineapple, quinoa or casaba root being used as a source of fermentable sugar, or “guarapo” which is of Spaniard decent and which is made of fermented sugar cane, pineapple or Fique. Both of these beverages use spontaneous fermentation principles similar to Lambic beers in which fermentation happens thanks to natural occurring yeast. To describe the taste and texture of these beverages, both have a grainy mouthfeel, like when you eat a pear, with some deep fermented fruit taste which many people find tastes like very ripe and fermented tropical fruits (not a bad taste just different). Hygiene and tax evasion among other was the main reason why these fermented beverages fell out of favour along with the arrival of European immigrants and their drinking customs.
A quick visit to most Latin American countries yields an abundance of light lager style beers, and Colombia is no exception. Beers such as Aguila, Poker and Club Colombia - brewed by Bavaria S.A. - a subsidiary of the giant SABMiller since 2005, continue to hold a significant market share at a whooping 98% with an annual production of approximately 26.2 million hectoliters for a population of 45,558,000 (of which 64% consume primarily beer).
The remaining 2% market share is shared among craft brewers such as Bogota Beer Company BBC, which has defined itself as “La cervecería pequeña más grande de Bogotá” or “The biggest small brewery in Bogota” and which began operations 11 years ago in 2002. BBC’s owner Berny Silberwasser has managed to expand his line of British style pubs around the country and successfully expanded the distribution of their beers to major supermarkets chains owning approximately 80% of this 2% niche market. Just last August 2013 the company began expansion into a new brewery at a cost of US$14.5 million to expand their 24,000 annual hectoliters production to 40,000 hectoliters. The remaining 20% of this 2% market is mainly shared between Apostol (3,800 annual hectoliter production, began operations in 2009, founder Juan Camilo Salazar Pineda), 3 Cordilleras (3,800 annual hectoliter production, began operations in 2008, founder Juanchi Velez) and many other smaller operations with substantially less than 1,000 hectoliters annual production each.
Similar to other places in the world, the big breweries have managed to achieve economies of scales by focusing on volumes as opposed to variety in their product offerings. This has created a monotonous beer monopoly in a thirsty country ready to have its taste buds liberated. The fact a brewery like BBC can expand itself to 40,000 annual hectoliters in less than 12 years is proof that the Colombian market has become more sophisticated and globalized and is ready for all the beer world has to offer. Education and awareness will become key aspects for years to come and I hope to become a part of this.
- The ‘Porter’ name is thought to have originated due to its popularity with transportation workers of central London in the 18th century. These individuals were often physical labourers – the working class - such as trolley workers, train workers, dock workers etc …
- Porter’s were considered the ‘working mans beer’ during the industrial revolution becoming the first beer style deemed a beer style because of its popularity and considered the first engineered beer to cater to the public’s taste (in line with the industrial revolution ideas of the time). It was the first beer style to be aged at the brewery and delivered ready to drink which also made it the first commercial beer style.
- Before 1721 – the traditional Porter was simply known as a popular London beverage called ‘Three Threads’ made popular by a brewer called Ralph Hardwood – a pint of each Ale, Beer and Twopenny (strong beer). Interestingly enough, a replica of Hardwood’s popular beverage - known as ’Entire Butt’ - is credited for the modern Porter.
- 1802 - John Feltham provided the earliest account on porters as being a blend of 3 other beer styles (at various proportions): an old ale (stale or soured ale), a new ale (brown or pale ale), a weak ale (mild ale). It was not uncommon to see combinations of up to 5 different beers.
- 1868 – Charles Dickens provided his account of the Porter style as a brown beer made in London generally brewed in the winter and aged between 6 to 9 months. As such the beer had a tartness often perceived as sour or hardness because of aging. The solution was then to pre-blend with fresher beer to “condition it” which would impart old age characteristics in an infant brew.
- A strong English porter may be called “Extra porter” “Double Porter” or a “Stout Porter”. Each brewery may have had a specific set of conditions to create their own version of a Porter, hence its title of first engineered beer style.
- The Porter style also evolved out of the economics of brewing. In the past beer was left to age in the pubs cellars (as opposed to the brewer premises). Leaving beer to age takes up a lot of space and if improperly cellared it could lead to significant economic loss to pub owners. In a time when profits and cost containment were becoming increasingly important Porters changed the dynamics of brewing and distribution.
- Summer brewing was not feasible before the industrial revolution since fermentation and lagering (storage) required specific temperatures be maintained otherwise the yeast could become too active and impart undesirable characteristics to the beer. This all changed with the coming of the industrial revolution when new technologies became available, such as refrigeration, that essentially changed the timing and manner of the brewing process.
- In particular, brewing processes and technologies changed dramatically mainly due to the following inventions of the time:
- Hydrometer (1770)
- Allowed brewers to measure the yield of sugar from malt and allowed brewers to increase efficiency of sugar extraction for fermentation.
- Before: brewers used 100% brown malt which had less fermentable sugars than pale malt.
- After: brewers used mainly pale malt which had more fermentable sugars that translated into lower costs.
- Thermometer (1760)
- Allowed brewers to find optimal temperatures to extract wort (fermentable sugars) and reduce undesirable characteristics from malt and hops.
- Since malt taxes had increased to pay for the Napoleonic war at the time the thermometer allowed for an increased brewing efficiency and saving in costs.
- Black Patent Malt (1816)
- 1816 English law forbade the use of ingredients other than malt and hops.
- As pale malt was being used, the darker appearance and colours of beer that people were used to could only be achieved by adding colorants often to the detriment of consumers. Daniel Wheeler developed Black Patent malt in 1817 in response to this issue.
- Allowed brewers to use 95% pale malt and 5% black patent malt and still achieve the darker appearance people were used. Brown malt would still be used for flavour.
- Irish Porters were also being brewed as early as 1776 using similar methods available in England. However, it was after 1816 many Irish Porters dropped brown malt and adopted to use of only pale and black patent malt. Porters have made a comeback during the brewing revolution of 1970’s with a wide range of flavour profiles and makes use of pale malt (as a base), black malt, crystal, chocolate, smoked brown malts among others.
- The BJCP currently recognizes 3 Porter styles:
- 12A - Brown Porter – malty sweetness and closest version of the traditional English porter.
- 12 B - Robust Porter – more apparent roasty flavours and often higher ABV.
- 12 C - Baltic Porter - fermented using lager yeast as opposed to ale yeast, mainly in Czech Republic, Russia, Poland, Ukraine where cold temperatures were more common. Characterized for its higher ABV and sweet malt profile.
- The modern porter will range in appearance from brown to black with perfect transparency and moderate hop bitterness with a mixture of sweetness (depending on its variation). A fullness on the palate a certain sharpness without sourness or burnt flavour will also be present (again, depending on the variation). ABV will range from 4 to 7%.
I finally got this out of the way! Been meaning to post my presentation notes for this style for a while
Thought I would start my own Beer Style Guide that would focus on history and interesting facts using the BJCP Beer Style Guidelines as a template.The complete BJCP guide is quite useful but missing a lot of historical info on each style, which is understandable given the wealth of information out there!
There are 23 style categories which should keep me busy for a while. As it figures, digging for information in the interwebs takes quite a bit. Stay tuned for this series of posts!
Back in the days we were taking classes for Prud’Homme Beer Certification we missed part of a session on draught systems. So last weekend we spent the morning building a draught system from scratch at UBC Group HQ in Mississauga with Jeff Rogowsky (Director of Sales, Ontario & Western Canada)
Because a picture tells a million words I had to share these pictures with the world!
We started by building the wall housing for the FOB and secondary regulators for the fridge. We followed a guide provided to us and learned the little finer details of installation of the lines. Tubing specs (i.e. resistance values) is something I had never taken into account while reading from a textbook. Also, little tips like soaking the tubing in hot water so they are easier to insert in the nozzles were invaluable.
This is what the actual housing looks like installed in the back of the fridge. All nice and neat and nothing like I have seen in some places.
And this is our attempt at building it. We clamped the wrong tubing in the wrong nozzle and found out the hard way how difficult it is to remove the clamps once they are already fitted. Oh well. Live and learn.
Our makeshift tap was ready to hook up to the trunk line …
We had measured the choke line resistance and cut the line to the appropriate size to achieve our desired 15 p.s.i for the lager we were hooking up.
The glycol system had already been hooked up and working at 0ºC (about 31ºF) and all we had to do was hook up the trunk line to the beer fridge and complete the circuit with the wall mount we had just built.
To join the tubing coming out of the fridge we cut open the trunk line insulation up to a certain distance and joined it to one of the beer lines (we chose the blue one).
And this is how it was done; a hose splicer inserted into each tube and clamped securely at each end.
This was more or less the final product of the marriage between the 2 lines.
We then proceeded to hook up the CO2 canister to the system along with the primary regulator.
And this was the final product.
We proceeded to test our pouring rate which started at about 20oz in 10 seconds. Not bad for the first pour of the system! Now it was just a matter of raising the overall system pressure through our primary regulator (CO2 level in our beer was a little low with almost no head. But in this case since we only had the one line we raised the secondary regulator pressure instead which worked out at exactly our 15 p.s.i.
After hooking up everything we checked for dripping and insulated the trunk line.
We made sure to insulate as much as possible to prevent condensation in the lines.
We also had a chance to get our hands in a kegerator and setting it up which proved much simpler than the long-draw system.
Although I did not have much involvement in the set up of the kegerator, a quick look inside reveals a simple set-up.
Needless to say it was a great way to spend a Sunday morning! For this kind of thing it is always better to get your hands dirty and learn first hand. Special thanks to Jeff Rogowsky for coming to work on Sunday morning and Rogger Mittag for setting this up for us.
H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide)
Rotten eggs, sulphur, like a burned match
Due to yeast or bacteria metabolic processes in pre/post fermentation or during maturation of the beer
Possible causes and Prevention:
- Cause: By-product of yeast (lager yeast produces more H2S than ale yeast)
Prevention: Let the beer condition for a few weeks after primary fermentation. Or choose a less volatile yeast strain.
- Cause: By-product of bacteria (bacterial contamination)
Prevention: A good sanitation regime.
- Cause: Yeast autolysis (self-disgestion, old beer)
Prevention: Pitch an adequate amount of yeast (not too much, not too little) and ferment for an adequate amount of time (lager vs. ale)
- Cause: Rapid temperature changes to fermenting wort
Prevention: For lagers in particular, cool lagers no more than 5 degrees per day (allow adequate levels of CO2 remove H2S)
- Cause: High fermentation temperatures
Prevention: Maintain an adequate fermentation temperature otherwise yeast may become too active
- Cause: Excessive trub (pretty much the sediment at the bottom of fermentation composed of heavy fats, proteins and inactive yeast)
Prevention: Rack beer off sediment
- Cause: Beer is too ‘green’
Prevention: See 1 above
- Maintain vigorous fermentation (allow more efficient removal of volatile H2S by CO2)
- Add electrolytic copper. This is a more advanced brewing technique.
H2S is present in all beers and vary in concentration from beer to beer. “Sulphur is essential for the fermentation process, since the yeast needs to manufacture the two sulphur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Some yeast strains will use sulphur from sulphate ions for this purpose and will then excrete any excess as sulphite ions. These can then be reduced to form hydrogen sulphide or sulphur dioxide.” (source)
It is considered an off-flavour is most styles but acceptable in Burton (English) Ales as a result of the water used (refer to Burton-on-Trent if you would like more info in the water profile found there).
This off-flavour will contribute to perception of ‘freshness’ in a beer so it is in the best interest of the brewer to remove as much as possible.
Triple AAA bar Toronto!
Just a quick post of our visit to Triple AAA bar in Toronto where they had Kensington Brewing Co.’s beer on draught. If I remember correctly I had their Baldwin Fisheye-PA in this occasion and it blew my mind how well it paired with the Smoked Dry Rub Ribs we ordered! I have reviewed some of their beers before and find them quite refreshing. That night was no exception!
Thank you sirs for a pleasant night!
Why does my beer taste off?
You probably have asked yourself this question at some point in your brewing or beer tasting career (be it amateur or professional) and unfortunately the answer sometimes lies in poor sanitation techniques throughout the brewing process. But sometimes these off-flavours are naturally occurring and often not intended.
The accurate and quick identification of off-flavours and aromas is critical in the brewing process in order to take actions to remedy before the defect becomes more apparent and irreversible. For consumers it is important to become familiar and understand where these defects come from to correctly justify rejections. In both instances a deeper understanding will lead to an elevated industry standard.
The following are some of the most commonly encountered off-flavours and aromas encountered in beer:
- H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide)
Characteristics: Rotten eggs, sulphur, like a burned match.
- Diacetyl (2, 3 butanedione)
Characteristics: Butter, rancid butter, butterscotch, milky / creamy.
- DMS (Dimethyl Sulfide)
Characteristics: Cooked vegetables, creamed corned, tomato, cabbage. Shellfish/oyster like flavours.
- Lightstruck or 3MBT (3-methyl 2-butene 1-thiol)
Characteristics: Skunky, sunstruck.
- Isovaleric (Isovaleric Acid)
Characteristics: Sweaty, stale cheese, old hops, putrid.
- Catty (p-menthane-8-thiol-3-one)
Characteristics: Cat urine, currants, blackcurrant leaves.
- Fruity (Isoamyl Acetate)
Characteristics: Banana, sweet fruit, pear drop.
- Metallic (Ferrous Sulphate)
Characteristics: tin, inky, blood-like, copper.
- Mercaptan (Ethanethiol)
Characteristics: drains, leek-like, rotten vegetables.
- Papery (Trans-2-noneal)
Characteristics: Wet cardboard, oxidized.
Characteristics: Bruised apples, emulsion paint, freshly cut pumpkin.
Characteristics: Sour milk (lactic acid), lemons (citric acid), vinager (acetic acid).
- Estery (Ethyl Hexanoate)
Characteristics: Apple, aniseed.
- Phenolic (4-Vinyl Guaiacol)
Characteristics: Herbal, spicy, cloves.
It is my intention to go into detail for each one of these in various posts. The wealth of information out there warrants a detailed yet concise description of each including: Origin, Possible Causes, How to Avoid and Possible Treatments. It is important to note some of these are acceptable in small quantities while others define specific styles.
I encourage you to obtain a defect wheel such as this one. It is quite useful and informative. I just wish this was available in a pocket-sized format. Stay tuned for this series of posts!